Validity and reliability of a Persian translation of the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis (MACFIMS)

Clin Neuropsychol. 2012;26(6):975-84. doi: 10.1080/13854046.2012.694912. Epub 2012 Jun 11.

Eshaghi A, Riyahi-Alam S, Roostaei T, Haeri G, Aghsaei A, Aidi MR, Pouretemad HR, Zarei M, Farhang S, Saeedi R, Nazeri A, Ganjgahi H, Etesam F, Azimi AR, Benedict RH, Sahraian MA.


Sina MS Research Center, Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.


Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and validated batteries are limited in languages other than English. We aimed to translate, cross-culturally adapt, validate, and assess reliability of Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS (MACFIMS) in Persian. The MACFIMS is a well-constructed battery in the MS literature. The battery was adapted to Persian in accordance with available guidelines. A total of 158 MS patients and 90 controls underwent neuropsychological assessment. For reliability assessment the battery was re-administered in a subset of 41 patients after a short interval using alternate forms to mitigate practice effects (approximately 10 days). Patients performed significantly worse than controls in all cognitive tests, supporting discriminant validity of our adapted battery. Approximately half of patients (46.2%) showed cognitive impairment as defined by the impairment in two or more tests. The Symbol Digit Modalities Test was the most robust test by ROC analysis. All tests showed acceptable to good level of reliability. This is the first validation of gold-standard cognitive testing in Persian. The Persian MACFIMS shows nearly the same psychometrics as its English counterpart.